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Informal Guidelines of Research Paper Writing


Key points to remember: 

  • Submit all work in its final form.
  • Write your paper in the form, which is presented in the guidelines using the template.
  • Please note the criterion for grading the final paper by peer-reviewers.

Final Points:

A purpose of organizing a research paper is to let people to interpret your effort selectively. The journal requires the following sections, submitted in the order listed, each section to start on a new page. 

The introduction will be compiled from reference matter and will reflect the design processes or outline of basis that direct you to make study. As you will carry out the process of study, the method and process section will be constructed as like that. The result segment will show related statistics in nearly sequential order and will direct the reviewers next to the similar intellectual paths throughout the data that you took to carry out your study. The discussion section will provide understanding of the data and projections as to the implication of the results. The use of good quality references all through the paper will give the effort trustworthiness by representing an alertness of prior workings.

Writing a research paper is not an easy job no matter how trouble-free the actual research or concept. Practice, excellent preparation, and controlled record keeping are the only means to make straightforward the progression. 

General style:

Specific editorial column necessities for compliance of a manuscript will always take over from directions in these general guidelines.

To make a paper clear

Adhere to recommended page limits

Mistakes to evade

  • Insertion a title at the foot of a page with the subsequent text on the next page
  • Separating a table/chart or figure - impound each figure/table to a single page
  • Submitting a manuscript with pages out of sequence

In every sections of your document

· Use standard writing style including articles ("a", "the," etc.)

· Keep on paying attention on the research topic of the paper

· Use paragraphs to split each significant point (excluding for the abstract)

· Align the primary line of each section

· Present your points in sound order

· Use present tense to report well accepted 

· Use past tense to describe specific results 

· Shun familiar wording, don't address the reviewer directly, and don't use slang, slang language, or superlatives 

· Shun use of extra pictures - include only those figures essential to presenting results

Title Page:

Choose a revealing title. It should be short. It should not have non-standard acronyms or abbreviations. It should not exceed two printed lines. It should include the name(s) and address (es) of all authors.


The summary should be two hundred words or less. It should briefly and clearly explain the key findings reported in the manuscript--must have precise statistics. It should not have abnormal acronyms or abbreviations. It should be logical in itself. Shun citing references at this point.

An abstract is a brief distinct paragraph summary of finished work or work in development. In a minute or less a reviewer can be taught the foundation behind the study, common approach to the problem, relevant results, and significant conclusions or new questions. 

Write your summary when your paper is completed because how can you write the summary of anything which is not yet written? Wealth of terminology is very essential in abstract. Yet, use comprehensive sentences and do not let go readability for briefness. You can maintain it succinct by phrasing sentences so that they provide more than lone rationale. The author can at this moment go straight to shortening the outcome. Sum up the study, with the subsequent elements in any summary. Try to maintain the initial two items to no more than one ruling each. 

  • Reason of the study - theory, overall issue, purpose
  • Fundamental goal
  • To the point depiction of the research
  • Consequences, including definite statistics - if the consequences are quantitative in nature, account quantitative data; results of any numerical analysis should be reported
  • Significant conclusions or questions that track from the research(es)


  • Single section, and succinct
  • As a outline of job done, it is always written in past tense
  • A conceptual should situate on its own, and not submit to any other part of the paper such as a form or table
  • Center on shortening results - bound background information to a verdict or two, if completely necessary
  • What you account in an conceptual must be regular with what you reported in the manuscript
  • Exact spelling, clearness of sentences and phrases, and appropriate reporting of quantities (proper units, important statistics) are just as significant in an abstract as they are anywhere else


The Introduction should "introduce" the manuscript. The reviewer should be presented with sufficient background information to be capable to comprehend and calculate the purpose of your study without having to submit to other works. The basis for the study should be offered. Give most important references but shun difficult to make a comprehensive appraisal of the topic. In the introduction, describe the problem visibly. If the problem is not acknowledged in a logical, reasonable way, the reviewer will have no attention in your result. Speak in common terms about techniques used to explain the problem, if needed, but do not present any particulars about the protocols here. Following approach can create a valuable beginning:

  • Explain the value (significance) of the study
  • Shield the model - why did you employ this particular system or method? What is its compensation? You strength remark on its appropriateness from a abstract point of vision as well as point out sensible reasons for using it.
  • Present a justification. Status your particular theory (es) or aim(s), and describe the logic that led you to choose them.
  • Very for a short time explain the tentative propose and how it skilled the declared objectives.


  • Use past tense except for when referring to recognized facts. After all, the manuscript will be submitted after the entire job is done.
  • Sort out your thoughts; manufacture one key point with every section. If you make the four points listed above, you will need a least of four paragraphs.
  • Present surroundings information only as desirable in order hold up a situation. The reviewer does not desire to read the whole thing you know about a topic.
  • Shape the theory/purpose specifically - do not take a broad view.
  • As always, give awareness to spelling, simplicity and correctness of sentences and phrases.

Procedures (Methods and Materials):

This part is supposed to be the easiest to carve if you have good skills. A sound written Procedures segment allows a capable scientist to replacement your results. Present precise information about your supplies. The suppliers and clarity of reagents can be helpful bits of information. Present methods in sequential order but linked methodologies can be grouped as a segment. Be concise when relating the protocols. Attempt for the least amount of information that would permit another capable scientist to spare your outcome but be cautious that vital information is integrated. The use of subheadings is suggested and ought to be synchronized with the results section. When a technique is used that has been well described in another object, mention the specific item describing a way but draw the basic principle while stating the situation. The purpose is to text all particular resources and broad procedures, so that another person may use some or all of the methods in one more study or referee the scientific value of your work. It is not to be a step by step report of the whole thing you did, nor is a methods section a set of orders.


  • Explain materials individually only if the study is so complex that it saves liberty this way.
  • Embrace particular materials, and any tools or provisions that are not frequently found in laboratories.
  • Do not take in frequently found.
  • If use of a definite type of tools.
  • Materials may be reported in a part section or else they may be recognized along with your measures.


  • Report the method (not particulars of each process that engaged the same methodology)
  • Describe the method entirely
  • To be succinct, present methods under headings dedicated to specific dealings or groups of measures
  • Simplify - details how procedures were completed not how they were exclusively performed on a particular day.
  • If well known procedures were used, account the procedure by name, possibly with reference, and that's all.


  • It is embarrassed or not possible to use vigorous voice when documenting methods with no using first person, which would focus the reviewer's interest on the researcher rather than the job. As a result when script up the methods most authors use third person passive voice.
  • Use standard style in this and in every other part of the paper - avoid familiar lists, and use full sentences.

What to keep away from

  • Resources and methods are not a set of information.
  • Skip all descriptive information and surroundings - save it for the argument.
  • Leave out information that is immaterial to a third party.


The principle of a results segment is to present and demonstrate your conclusion. Create this part a entirely objective details of the outcome, and save all understanding for the discussion.

The page length of this segment is set by the sum and types of data to be reported. Carry on to be to the point, by means of statistics and tables, if suitable, to present consequences most efficiently.

You must obviously differentiate material that would usually be incorporated in a study editorial from any unprocessed data or additional appendix matter that would not be available. In fact, such matter should not be submitted at all except requested by the instructor.


  • Sum up your conclusion in text and demonstrate them, if suitable, with figures and tables.
  • In manuscript, explain each of your consequences, point the reader to remarks that are most appropriate.
  • Present a background, such as by describing the question that was addressed by creation an exacting study.
  • Explain results of control experiments and comprise remarks that are not accessible in a prescribed figure or table, if appropriate.
  • Examine your data, then prepare the analyzed (transformed) data in the form of a figure (graph), table, or in manuscript form.

What to stay away from

  • Do not discuss or infer your outcome, report surroundings information, or try to explain anything.
  • Not at all take in raw data or intermediate calculations in a research manuscript.
  • Do not present the similar data more than once.
  • Manuscript should complement any figures or tables, not duplicate the identical information.
  • Never confuse figures with tables - there is a difference.


  • As forever, use past tense when you submit to your results, and put the whole thing in a reasonable order.
  • Put figures and tables, appropriately numbered, in order at the end of the report
  • If you desire, you may place your figures and tables properly within the text of your results part.

Figures and tables

  • If you put figures and tables at the end of the details, make certain that they are visibly distinguished from any attach appendix materials, such as raw facts
  • Despite of position, each figure must be numbered one after the other and complete with subtitle
  • In spite of of position, each table must be titled, numbered one after the other and complete with heading
  • All figure and table must be adequately complete that it could situate on its own, divide from text


The Discussion is expected the trickiest segment to write and describe. A lot of papers submitted for journal are discarded based on problems with the Discussion. There is no head of state for how long a argument should be. Position your understanding of the outcome visibly to lead the reviewer through your conclusions, and then finish the paper with a summing up of the implication of the study. The purpose here is to offer an understanding of your results and hold up for all of your conclusions, using facts from your research and generally accepted information, if suitable. The implication of result should be visibly described. 

Infer your data in the conversation in suitable depth. This means that when you clarify an observable fact you must explain mechanisms that may account for the observation. If your results vary from your prospect, make clear why that may have happened. If your results agree, then explain the theory that the proof supported. It is never suitable to just state that the data approved with prospect, and let it drop at that.

  • Make a decision if each premise is supported, discarded, or if you cannot make a conclusion with assurance. Do not just dismiss a study or part of a study as "uncertain."
  • Research papers are not acknowledged if the work is imperfect. Draw what conclusions you can based upon the results that you have, and take care of the study as a finished work
  • You may propose future guidelines, such as how the experiment might be personalized to accomplish a new idea.
  • Give details all of your remarks as much as possible, focus on mechanisms.
  • Make a decision if the tentative design sufficiently addressed the theory, and whether or not it was correctly restricted.
  • Try to present substitute explanations if sensible alternatives be present.
  • One research will not counter an overall question, so maintain the large picture in mind, where do you go next? The best studies unlock new avenues of study. What questions remain?
  • Recommendations for detailed papers will offer supplementary suggestions.


  • When you refer to information, differentiate data generated by your own studies from available information
  • Submit to work done by specific persons (including you) in past tense.
  • Submit to generally acknowledged facts and main beliefs in present tense.